I. Supply the missing paragraph. (20 points)
The following passage is incomplete with one paragraph missing. Study the passage carefully and write the missing paragraph in about 100 words. Make sure that your tone and diction are in unity with the passage provided.
Getting Back in Shape- One Step at a Time
The worst of the epidemic appears to be over, and a summer of increasing freedom lies ahead. But what if our summer clothes no longer fit? The past months of disrupted routines and near-constant stress and anxiety drove many to seek comfort in food, which means many of us have gained weight. Dietitian and author Paula Mee is worried that this will make us easy targets for companies peddling diet and weight-loss products. Thus, she suggests a more mindful approach based on establishing healthier habits: accepting that it was normal to gain weight during lockdown, examining your lifestyle factors that lead to weight gaining, and stocking up your fridge with healthier snacks.
The first step is to accept that it was natural and normal to tum to food for solace. “Lockdown brought physical and mental challenges," says Mee. "People had to give up the gym and sports, and many reported not sleeping well. The uncertainty meant people spent more time in the kitchen, nibbling and snacking. Food was something they felt they could enjoy safely, and it offered consolation and distraction for many." This could explain why so many gained weight. A systematic review examining the impact of the lockdown on the bodyweight of 59,711 people from 32 countries found that up to 72% had put on weight.
The third step is to stock up your fridge with healthy snacks. A study surveyed 120,000 healthy men and women over the course of 20 years. “It determined that weight gain was most strongly associated with the intake of crisps, potatoes without skins, sugar-sweetened beverages, and processed and unprocessed red meats," says Mce. "The foods associated with weight loss were fruits, vegetables, wholegrains, nuts, and yogurts." UItra-processed foods are high in salt, fat, sugar, and calories but low in nutrition. They trigger the brain's reward pathways and cause cravings for more. So, you'd better have less processed snacks at hand, like nuts, hard-boiled eggs, or natural yogurts with some chopped fuits.
“What I tell my clients is to take steps to accept the situation, look at their lifestyle, while making small changes over time to improve the quality of the food they eat. I don't claim to have all the answers, but I do know those are habits that make for healthier lives," says Mee.
II. Write an outline. (20 points)
Read the following passage carefully and compose a“Topic Outline" for it.
Why Humor Is an Essential Life Skill
Mark Twain said that "Humor is the great thing, the saving thing after all. The minute it crops up, all our hardnesses yield, all our iritations and resentments slip away, and a sunny spirit takes their place." He's certainly not wrong. Humor may very well be the great thing. It touches upon nearly every facet of life- -90% of men and 81% of women report that a sense of humor is the most important quality in a partner, a crucial quality for leaders, and even an effective treatment for cancer. There's no doubt that humor is a life skill that everybody needs. But how do we define humor?
There are three main theories on what humor is and where it comes from. Relief theory argues that humor is a way to release nervous energy, blowing off psychological steam. That's why jokes told at funerals are often met not with the silence that a somber occasion like that would merit but with extremely loud laughter instead.
Superiority theory was originally formulated to explain a specific kind of humor: Why we laugh at others’ misfortunes. In this theory, humor is a means of dcclaring one's superiority over others. If you're looking to cultivate a sense of humor to improve your leadership skills, this is not the kind you want to acquire.
Incongruity theory (不协调理论) argues that humor arises when two contrating, distinct ideas are mingled, often reversing expectations. Consider Oscar Wilde's“Work is the curse of the drinking classes"- it's funny because it reverses not only a common phrase but also a more conventional way of looking at the world.
Then what are the benefits of humor? Being funny is possibly one of the best things you can do for your health. You can almost think of a sense of humor as your mind's immune system. People at risk for depression tend to fall into depressing episodes when exposed to some kind of negative stimuli, and afterwards, it becomes easier and easier for them to go back into depression. However, viewing a negative event in a humorous light acts as a kind of emotional filter, preventing the negative mood from triggering a depressing episode.
Humor doesn't just guard against depression. It also improves people's overall quality of life. Researchers have found that people who score high in certain types of humor have greater self-esteem, stronger self- competence, more control over anxiety, and better performance in social interactions.
You may wonder whether you are able to create humor. Humor is a trait that is both innate and learnable. There's no such thing as a completely humorless individual-humor is a fundamental part of human nature. In the past, we believed that only some cultures developed humor, but this belief has changed, as no culture has ever been found to be devoid of laughter and comedy. Humor is also something you can leam. So, if you want to improve your sense of humor, try to look on the funny side of life, and the worst thing that can happen to you is a laugh or two in your life.
II. Compose an essay. (60 points)
Theodore Roosevelt once said, "Keep your eyes on the stars, and your feet on the ground." How do you understand this statement? How do you keep a balance between your dreams and your efforts? Write a 300-word expository essay to express your opinion.